34 Which aspect of Roman road building does the writer mention in Section A?35 The writer compares the Appian Way to a modern highway because36 According to the writer, the purpose of the triumphal arches was to37 What common use of a milestone is mentioned in Section E?
Part 1 Questions 1-14
Next time you visit Manly, 30 minutes by ferry from the centre of Australia's biggest city, Sydney, try some of these Jess famous beaches
- AFairy Bower
- Located in a marine protection area, the water is perfect for paddling, snorkelling or even scuba diving. There is a small gift shop for unusual souvenirs, and a kiosk that rents stand-up paddleboards. Buses do not stop nearby so a walk is necessary.
- BNorth Steyne
- This popular beach is a little further from the ferry than the main beach and it always feels less crowded. North Steyne has professional lifeguards on duty, but the surf can be hazardous so check conditions if swimming with young ones. If you want to try surfing for the first time, Manly Surf School operates out of the surf club located on the beach. Please note that boards are reserved for students and are not available for rent.
- Delwood's secluded cove is a scenic walk from the ferry along the harbour walkway. There are no shops, so bring a picnic and have a peaceful swim off the rocks. You'll probably have the beach to yourself.
- DLittle Manly
- This popular harbour beach has a net that encloses the swimming area. It is a good option for families as the protected area makes it easy to keep an eye on kids playing in the water. There is also a large playground, a public barbecue that anyone can use and toilet facilities, which make this a great spot for a family day out.
- EEast Esplanade
- Located next to Manly Wharf, East Esplanade is a popular spot all day. There is no beach closer to the ferry or buses than this one. Kayakers meet for a paddle here as the sun rises, and daytrippers sit on the sand during the day. People get together on the grass after work, and bring drinks, snacks and music to watch the sun go down.
- FShelly Beach
- This is the best spot if you don't like big waves. Rent a beach chair or head straight to the Boathouse Cafe, the perfect place for breakfast or lunch. Please note that Shelly Beach gets overly crowded at times, so avoid it on a sunny weekend afternoon.
Questions 1 – 7
Look at the six beach descriptions, A-F. For which beaches are the following statements true? Choose the correct letter, A-F.
NB You may use any letter more than once
- You can buy food at this beach.
- You can learn to do a sport at this beach.
- This beach can be uncomfortably busy.
- Adults can supervise their children without much difficulty at this beach.
- This beach is nearest to public transport.
- People are employed to supervise swimmers at this beach.
- You can hire sports equipment at this beach.
Part 1 Questions 1-14
Sydney Water: advice for customers paying a bill
- About your bill
- Sydney Water services over five million people in greater Sydney, and if you own a property, you'll get a bill from us. Generally, this is just for your water and wastewater services, but there could be other charges. We send most bills quarterly, after we've read the meter. If your property has no meter, we send the bill at the start of each quarter.
- When do we send the bill?
- If you'd like monthly bills, simply ask us to read your meter monthly. It costs $32.52 a quarter to be billed this way and this additional fee will appear on the first bill each quarter. To arrange it, just call us on 13 20 92.
- What if you can't pay the bill?
- We understand that it might be hard to pay your bill. If you're having difficulties, we have a range of options to help. If you receive a pension, we may give you a reduction on your bill, but you must own and live in your home to qualify for this.
- How can you get your billing history?
- Register for eBill. When you register for Sydney Water's online billing facility, eBill, you'll be able to see your past bills at any time. Once you're registered, you'll stop getting paper bills and start getting electronic ones.
- Still want paper bills? Simply cancel your registration after you have saved the electronic bills you need. Then you'll go back to paper bills, but you won't have access to the online bills after you cancel.
- Contact us. Simply contact us and we'll give you a statement that shows the amounts we charged you and the payments we received on your last five bills.
- Need more history? If you need information that's older than your lase five bills, you need to pay $28.04 for a 'billing record search statement'.
- How do you stop a charge on a bill?
- We'll stop a fixed charge on your bill if a licensed plumber cuts off your water or wastewater service. Your plumber must apply for this disconnection and follow Sydney Water's standard procedures.
Questions 8 – 14
Choose TRUE if the statement agrees with the information given in the text, choose FALSE if the statement contradicts the information given in the text, or choose NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this.
- All property owners receive Sydney Water bills.
- Customers who don't have a water meter must pay an extra charge.
- Customers who choose to receive a bill every month pay extra.
- Pensioners who live in rented accommodation might get a discount.
- Customers registered for eBill receive both paper and electronic bills.
- Customers who request information from the period before their last five bills must pay a fee.
- A fixed charge can be avoided when the water supply is disconnected by a licensed plumber.
Part 2 Questions 15 – 27
Company car parking policy
- DG Contracts recognises that many people working in the organisation require a vehicle for business purposes and aims to provide parking facilities for as many individuals as possible. However, car parking provision is limited. DG Contracts therefore actively encourages staff to reduce their carbon footprint by using public transport, walking or cycling, or by organising ways of sharing the use of cars.
- The car parking policy aims to allocate parking on a fair and equitable basis with spaces being given first to those employees who claim above a certain mileage of travel for business purposes. Individuals who are allocated a parking space will be issued with a parking permit and a number which corresponds to a car parking space. If there are any non-allocated car parking spaces, these can be utilised by employees on a first-come, first-served basis. In some cases, designated parking areas are required for company vehicles, which must be parked securely at night. However, employees may park in these areas in the daytime.
- If any individual leaves the company prior to the expiry of their parking permit, this will be handed on to the member of staff who acts as their replacement, assuming that this person requires it. If any individual who has been issued a parking permit takes maternity leave or is signed off work for a lengthy period, their parking permit will be reallocated to the staff member appointed as cover for this individual during their absence.
- Employees who park their cars in a DG company car park do so at their own risk and must follow the rules laid down in the parking policy. If you have any complaints concerning any aspect of car parking at DG company car parks, please address them to the HR Manager.
Questions 15 – 20
Complete the sentences. Write ONE WORD ONLY from the text in each gap.
- Parking is limited, so the use of alternative methods of transport and the of cars is encouraged.
- Staff with the highest are given parking spaces first.
- Some parking spaces are reserved for company vehicles during the but may be used by staff at other times.
- If an employee leaves the company permanently, their parking space will normally be given to their .
- If an employee takes extended leave, their parking space will be given to the person who provides for the absent employee.
- All about car parking should be sent to the HR Manager.
Part 2 Questions 21 – 27
Ensuring safety in the office
- It's fairly obvious that safety and health hazards can exist on worksites filled with heavy machinery and equipment. However, a surprising number of hazards can also be present in the office.
- The most common types of injuries are slips, trips and falls. Boxes, files and other items piled in walkways can create a tripping hazard. Be certain that all materials are safely stored in their proper location to prevent build-up of clutter. Further, in addition to posing an electrical hazard, stretching wires across walkways creates a tripping hazard, so ensure they are properly secured and covered.
- Standing on rolling office chairs is a significant fall hazard. Workers who need to reach something at an elevated height should use a stepladder, which must be fully opened and placed on level ground.
- Workers can collide when making turns in the hallways and around blind corners. This can be prevented by installing mirrors in these places so workers can see who is coming. Floors may also present a hazard. Marble or tile can become very slippery, particularly when wet. The use of carpets can help to reduce falls and can be especially helpful at main doors, where workers are likely to be coming in with wet shoes.
- Another type of injury comes from workers being struck by an object. Filing cabinets may be in danger of tipping over if drawers are left open, and filing cabinets and desks may also create a tripping hazard if they are not properly closed. High piles of materials and equipment can cause major injuries if they are knocked over. Heavy objects should always be stored close to the ground, and the load capacity of shelves should never be exceeded.
- Because office workers spend most of their day seated at a desk, they are prone to strains and other injuries related to posture and repetitive movement. Desks, seating, monitor stands, etc. should all be adjustable in order to accommodate the widest possible range of employees. Typing from hard copy can lead to neck strain if a worker is forced to look down repeatedly to the desk at the document being copied and back to the computer screen. This can be prevented by providing holders, which help to prevent muscle imbalance by positioning the document at the same level as the screen. Another cause of neck injuries is incorrect placement of the computer mouse - this should always be kept beside the keyboard, and at the same level.
Questions 21 – 27
Complete the notes. Write ONE WORD ONLY in each gap.
Making sure offices are safe
To prevent slips, trips, falls and collisions, ensure that
- boxes, files, etc. are correctly stored
- items such as do not create a tripping hazard
- workers do not use to reach high objects
- are fixed at corners
- floors are covered by , especially at entrances
- in office furniture are kept closed
- objects which are heavy are kept near the floor
- office furniture is
- are provided for documents
- the mouse is placed next to the computer keyboard
To prevent injuries caused by objects, ensure that
To prevent injuries due to posture and repetitive movement, ensure that
Part 3 Questions 28 – 40
- AThe long straight roads built by the Romans have, in many cases, become just as famous in history as their greatest emperors and generals. Building upon more ancient routes and creating a huge number of new ones, Roman engineers were fearless in their plans to join one point to another in as straight a line as possible, whatever the difficulties in geography and the costs in manpower. Consequently, roads required bridges, tunnels, viaducts and many other architectural and engineering features to create a series of breathtaking but highly useful monuments, which spread from Europe to eastern parts of the Roman empire.
- BThe Romans did not invent roads, but, as in so many other areas, they took an idea which went back as far as the Bronze Age and extended that concept, daring to squeeze from it the fullest possible potential. The first and most famous great Roman road was the Via Appia, or Appian Way. Constructed from 312 BCE, and covering 196 kilometres, it linked Rome to ancient Capua in Italy in as straight a line as possible and was appropriately known to the Romans as the Regina Viarum or 'Queen of Roads'. Much like a modern highway, it bypassed small towns along the way, and it largely ignored geographical obstacles. The road would later be extended to 569 kilometres in length.
- CThe network of public Roman roads covered over 120,000 kilometres. Besides permitting the rapid deployment of troops and, more importantly, the wheeled vehicles which supplied them with food and equipment, Roman roads allowed for an increase in trade and cultural exchange. Roads were also one of the ways Rorne could demonstrate its authority. For this reason, rnany roads began and ended in a triumphal arch, and the imperial prestige associated with a road project was demonstrated in the fact that roads were very often named after the officials who funded them; for example, the Via Appia takes its name from the Roman magistrate Appius Claudius Caecus.
- DTo achieve the objective of constructing the shortest routes possible between two points, all manner of engineering difficulties had to be overcome. Once extensive surveying had been carried out, to ensure the proposed route was actually straight and to determine what various engineering methods were needed, marshes had to be drained, forests cut through, creeks diverted, bedrock channelled, mountainsides cut into, rivers crossed with bridges, valleys traversed with viaducts and tunnels built through mountains. When all that was done, roads had to be levelled, reinforced with support walls or terracing and then, of course, maintained, which they were for over 800 years.
- EMajor roads were around a standard 4.2 metres wide, which was enough space for two vehicles to pass each other. First a trench was dug in the earth, and a layer of large stones was used to form the foundation. This was followed by a substantial deposit of smaller broken materials - often crushed brick was used for this purpose, and on top of this, a layer of fine gravel was added. This upper section of the road was referred to as the nucleus and was then surfaced with blocks or slabs. Mountain roads might also have ridges running across the surface of the slabs, to give animals better grip, and have ruts cut into the stone to guide wheeled vehicles.
- Roads were purposely inclined slightly from the centre down to the kerb to allow rainwater to run off along the sides. Many also had parallel ditches that collected the runoff and formed a drainage canal on each side of the road. A path of packed gravel for pedestrians typically ran along each side of the road, varying in width from 1 to 3 metres. Separating the path from the road were the kerb stones, which were regular upright slabs. Busier stretches of main roads had areas where vehicles could pull over, and some of these had services for travellers and their animals. Milestones were also set up at regular intervals along the road and these often recorded who was responsible for the upkeep of that stretch of the road and what repairs had been made.
- FLasting symbols of the imagination of Roman engineers are the many arched bridges and viaducts still standing today that helped achieve the engineers' straight-line goal. The Romans built to last, and the piers of bridges which crossed rivers, for example, were often built with a resistant prow-shape and used massive durable blocks of stone, while the upper parts might be built of stone blocks strengthened with iron clamps. Perhaps the most impressive bridge was at Narni; 180 metres long, 8 metres wide and as high as 33 metres, it had 4 massive semicircular arches, one of which, stretching 32.1 metres, ranks as one of the longest block-arch spans in the ancient world. Recently hit by earthquakes, it is now having to undergo restoration work to repair the effects.
- Such was the engineering and surveying skill of the Romans that many of their roads have provided the basis for hundreds of today's routes across Europe and the Middle East. Many roads in Italy still use the original Roman name for certain stretches, and some bridges, such as at Tre Ponti in Venice, still carry road traffic today.
Questions 28 – 33
Which section mentions the following? Choose the correct letter, A-F.
NB You may use any letter more than once
- the various functions of Roman roads
- reference to some current remains of Roman road building
- a description of preparations for building a road
- the period in history when road building began
- the consequence of damage caused by a natural disaster
- the total distance once crossed by Roman roads
Questions 34 – 37
Choose the correct answer.
34 Which aspect of Roman road building does the writer mention in Section A?
Questions 38 – 40
Label the diagram below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage in each gap.
Cross-section of a Roman road
- Nucleus made of
- Stone slabs - may be ridged to help using the road
- Stone slabs positioned to form a kerb
- Ditch or drainage canal
- Large stones
- Layer of materials such as
- Pedestrian pathway