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IELTS Reading - Identifying Info.-Y/N/NG 1

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Go to Reading Identifying Info. & Y/N/NG 12345
  • AOur life span is restricted. Everyone accepts this as 'biologically' obvious. 'Nothing lives for ever!' However, in this statement we think of artificially produced, technical objects, products which are subjected to natural wear and tear during use. This leads to the result that at some time or other the object stops working and is unusable ('death' in the biological sense). But are the wear and tear and loss of function of technical objects and the death of living organisms really similar or comparable?
  • BOur 'dead' products are 'static', closed systems. It is always the basic material which constitutes the object and which, in the natural course of things, is worn down and becomes 'older'. Ageing in this case must occur according to the laws of physical chemistry and of thermodynam.ics. Although the same law holds for a living organism, the result of this law is not inexorable in the same way. At least as long as a biological system has the ability to renew itself it could actually become older without ageing; an organism is an open, dynamic system through which new material continuously flows. Destruction of old material and formation of new material are thus in permanent dynamic equilibrium. The material of which the organism is formed changes continuously. Thus our bodies continuously exchange old substance for new, just like a spring which more or less maintains its form and movement, but in which the water molecules are always different.
  • CA major milestone in the history of glass occurred with the invention of lead crystal glass by the English glass manufacturer George Ravenscroft (1632-1683). He attempted to counter the effect of clouding that sometimes occurred in blown glass by introducing lead to the raw materials used in the process. The new glass he created was softer and easier to decorate, and had a higher refractive index, adding to its brilliance and beauty, and it proved invaluable to the optical industry. It is thanks to Ravenscroft's invention that optical lenses, astronomical telescopes, microscopes and the like became possible.
  • DIn Britain, the modem glass industry only really started to develop after the repeal of the Excise Act in 1845. Before that time, heavy taxes had been placed on the amount of glass melted in a glasshouse, and were levied continuously from 1745 to 1845. Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace at London's Great Exhibition of 1851 marked the beginning of glass as a material used in the building industry. This revolutionary new building encouraged the use of glass in public, domestic and horticultural architecture. Glass manufacturing techniques also improved with the advancement of science and the development of better technology.
  • EFrom 1887 onwards, glass making developed from traditional mouth-blowing to a semi-automatic process, after factory- owner HM Ashley introduced a machine capable of producing 200 bottles per hour in Castleford, Yorkshire, England - more than three times quicker than any previous production method. Then in 19071 the first fully automated machine was developed in the USA by Michael Owens - founder of the Owens Bottle Machine Company Oater the major manufacturers Owens- Illinois) - and installed in its factory. Owens' invention could produce an impressive 2,500 bottles per hour. Other developments followed rapidly, but it was not until the First World War, when Britain became cut off from essential glass suppliers, that glass became part of the scientific sector. Previous to this, glass had been seen as a craft rather than a precise science.
  • FToday, glass making is big business. It has become a modern, hi-tech industry operating in a :fiercely competitive global market where quality, design and service levels are critical to maintaining market share. Modem glass plants are capable of malting millions of glass containers a day in many different colours, with green, brown and clear remaining the most popular, Few of us can imagine modem life without glass. It features in almost every aspect of our lives - in our homes, our cars and whenever we sit down to eat or drink. Glass packaging is used for many products, many beverages are sold in glass, as are numerous foodstuffs, as well as medicines and cosmetics.
  • GGlass is an ideal material for recycling, and with growing consumer concern for green issues, glass bottles and jars are becoming ever more popular. Glass recycling is good news for the environment. It saves used glass containers being sent to landfill. As less energy is needed to melt recycled glass than to melt down raw materials, this also saves fuel and production costs. Recycling also reduces the need for raw materials to be quarried, thus saving precious resources.
Questions 27 - 32
Choose the correct number, i–x, of heading for paragraphs B–G from the list of headings below.
List of Headings
  • iThe biological clock
  • iiWhy dying is beneficial
  • iiiThe ageing process of men and women
  • ivProlonging your life
  • viModes of development of different species
  • viiA stable life span despite improvements
  • viiiEnergy consumption
  • ixFundamental differences in ageing of objects and organisms
  • xRepair of genetic material
  • Paragraph B
  • Paragraph C
  • Paragraph D
  • Paragraph E
  • Paragraph F
  • Paragraph G
Questions 33 - 36
Complete the notes. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text in each gap.

  • Objects age in accordance with principles of and of
  • Through mutations, organisms can better to the environment
  • would pose a serious problem for the theory of evolution

Questions 37- 40
Choose YES if the statement agrees with the writer's claims, choose NO if the statement contradicts the writer's claims, or choose NOT GIVEN if there is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

  • The wear and tear theory applies to both artificial objects and biological systems.
  • In principle, it is possible for a biological system to become older without ageing.
  • Within seven years, about 90 per cent of a human body is replaced as new.
  • Conserving energy may help to extend a human's life.



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